“Yamashita Standard”

Also known as “Command Line Responsibility” or “Command Responsibility, is when the law of war imposes on an army commander a duty to take such appropriate measures as are within his power to control the troops under his command for the prevention of acts that are violations of the law of war and which are […]

CHR vs. Civil Service Commission

Facts Atty Pacete opt for an optional retirement as Division Chief of CHR in 1989. The CHR and GSIS had conflicting decisions regarding the approval – CHR approved but GSIS won’t qualify him for retirement. Atty Pacete requested CHR to be reinstated, was denied, then elevated to MSPB. MSPB favored Pacete’s reinstatement and ordered payment […]

Bautista vs. Salonga Digest

G.R. No. 86439, 13 April 1989 Facts In August 1987, President Cory, through a letter, designated Mary Bautista first as “Acting Chairman of CHR” then as permanent. She then took oath before the Chief Justice. She then discharged her functions. In Jan 1989, she received a letter from the Secretary of CA (Appointments) requesting to […]

Cariño vs. CHR

G.R. No. 96681, 02 December 1991 Facts In 1990, an two associations of teachers (MPSTA and ACT) undertook a protest rally at the DECS (now DepEd) premises to call the DECS Secretary Cariño to make a certain action. Cariño ordered them to return to work in 24 hours or face dismissal. Nevertheless, the mass actions […]


Export Processing Zone Authority vs. CHRG.R. No. 101476, 14 April 1992 Facts Certain parcels of land in Cavite were designated as Export Processing Zones by PD 1980. It was later sold to EPZA. Before the latter could take possession, several individuals planted agri products without permission from EPZA. EPZA paid P10k for them to sign […]