Lex Rex Ph

Maritime Zones under UNCLOS

The different maritime zones can be defined by first determining the baseline. The baseline is the low-water line or low-tide elevation along the coast which includes its islands at the highest tide level. Seaward will be the different maritime zones, while landward will be the internal waters.

The different maritime zones are:

Territorial Waters

This zone extends from the baseline up to 12 nautical miles (22.2 km) seaward from the coast of the coastal state. Here, the territory of the coastal state is absolute. This means, it has full sovereignty here including the right to regulate fishing, navigation, and control the use of resources within the zone.

Contiguous Zone

This zone extends up to 24 nautical miles (44.4 km) from the baseline of a coastal state and is adjacent to the territorial waters. Here, the coastal state has limited control to prevent infringement of its laws in the areas of customs, immigration, and sanitation.

Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)

This zone extends up to 200 nautical miles (370.4 km) from the baseline of a coastal state. The coastal state has sovereign rights over the natural resources in the EEZ, including fish stocks, oil and gas reserves, and minerals. However, other states have the right to some activities over the EEZ such as overflight and navigation, subject to compliance with the laws of the coastal state such as environmental protection.

Continental Shelf

a geological feature that extends from a coastal state’s land territory into the adjacent seabed and subsoil, where the depth of the water is usually shallow. It is subject to the sovereignty of coastal states.  The rights to the continental shelf extend up to 200 nautical miles (370 kilometers) from the baseline of a coastal state, or beyond that limit if the shelf extends beyond this distance.

The “High Seas”

It is the “heritage of humankind.” These are essentially the areas of the ocean that do not fall under the jurisdiction of any individual state. It is open to all states and subject to freedom of navigation, which means that ships of all nations have the right to sail on the high seas without interference from other states. 

Other Content You May Be Interested In:

Notarial Prohibition

A document that commences the 10 years prescription of a negative easement; It is a notice that officially prohibits the owner of a servient estate from obstructing light and view.

Read More »

Lim vs. CA Digest

January 24, 2000 Facts In 1994, Pastor Y. Lim died intestate. Surviving spouse Rufina filed a petition for administration of his estate. The properties of respondent corporations (Auto Truck et. al.) were

Read More »

Stocks vs. Bonds

Stocks Bonds Nature A unit of ownership of the company A loan to the company Profits over time Intended to appreciate in value through time (not guaranteed) Pays fixed interest over time

Read More »

Bautista vs. Salonga Digest

G.R. No. 86439, 13 April 1989 Facts In August 1987, President Cory, through a letter, designated Mary Bautista first as “Acting Chairman of CHR” then as permanent. She then took oath before

Read More »

Doctrine of Apparent Authority

The Doctrine of Apparent Authority is applied when a corporation knowingly permits one of its officers or agent to act within the scope of apparent authority. This doctrine is present when the

Read More »

Action in rem

Actions in rem are actions against the thing itself. They are binding upon the whole world.59 The phrase, “against the thing,” to describe in rem actions is a metaphor. It is not

Read More »