It is factual and evidentiary. It does not mean bad judgment or negligence because it imports a dishonest purpose or some moral obliquity and conscious wrongdoing. It means breach of a known duty through some ill motive or interest. It partakes of the nature of fraud. Inability to pay obligation is not synonymous with fraud. – Magaling vs. Peter Ong
Persons and Family Relations Quiz
Persons is a sub-topic under the Civil Code, particularly that of the Family Code. This is usually taken during the first year of law school.